Know, how different are the Indian EVMs!

Indian EVMs are not networked - Indian EVMs are built by two PSUs, not by private companies like other countries! For this reason, outsiders or technical vendors do not have any interference in the design and manufacturing of the EVM related to EVMs!

May 12, 2017

Nowdays the credibility of electronic voting machine (EVM) is being questioned. The EC has tried to answer every question related to the EVM to maintain the confidence of the people. The Election Commission has also shared the complete information of the EVM used in India.

Not only that, the Election Commission has convened a meeting of all political parties today. In this meeting Hakaton will also be held, in which the commission will prove to the parties that EVM can not be hacked. So here are we are providing the all related things about EVM for you.

Where are EVMs prepared?

EVM and Voter-Verification Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) are being constructed by Bharat Electronics Limited (a PSU under the Ministry of Defense) and Electronic Corporation of India Limited (a PSU under the Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India). EVM software is prepared independently by selected engineers of BEL and ECIL.

Source codes are prepared by these groups of selected engineers. After software is prepared, it is tested and evaluated by other independent groups of PSU on the basis of Software Requirement Specifications (SRS). After testing and evaluation, it is ensured that the software has been prepared according to the requirement.

EVM’s original source code is protected by PSU, this code is beyond the reach of anyone other than the software development group. Machines are of three types M1, M2 and M3.

Machine code is prepared with the help of source program code in M1 and M2 machines, which is given to the Micro Controller Manufactor. It prepares the One Time Programmable (OTP) Micro Controller based on machine code. Original source code can not be accessed from this machine code. Through such OTP microcontrollers, neither source code can be changed nor read.

Now the machine code can be secured in a single chip due to the advancement of techniques. Therefore, within the manufacturing company M3 machines (machines post 2013) the entire program is secured in a single chip. Due to lack of necessary facilities in India, they are prepared in foreign countries.

After getting the machine code, the Micro Controller Manufacturer checks that there has been no change in it during transportation. Along with that, he provides engineering samples to PSU for further investigation.

These samples are then fitted in EVMs, it is examined, its authenticity of the code and its functionality is examined in depth. Only after this verification, the clearance of bulk production is given by PSU.

EVM tracking software (ETS)

Election Commission has started ETS under modern management system. Through this software, the EC monitors real time tracking of identification and physical presentation of every EVM and VVPAT. Every machine used by the Election Commission is tracked through this software.

Comparison with other countries’ electoral process:

The election management and technology relationship is from 1892, when the first lever voting machine was used in New York. In the 60’s, punch-card machines were introduced in the US and the first EVM was introduced in 1975. Since then, there have been considerable changes in EVMs so far.


EVMs were used in the Netherlands between 1990 and 2007. These machines were made by a private Dutch company named NEDAP. In the year 2006, the government directed the independent probe of the voting machines. Two independent commissions were also formed for this. After the reports of both commissions, machines manufactured by NEDAP were discontinued.


E-voting machines manufactured by NEDAP in Germany were used between 2005 and 2009. After this the machines came under the questions and later they were stopped. The Federal Constitutional Court of Germany banned the use of these machines in 2009. The reason for the ban in Germany was the process of the election under which the general public has the right to keep an eye on the important steps in the election process.


NEDAP machines were used in Ireland between 2002 and 2004. After questioning machines, two independent commissions were formed, which examined the machines on the basis of safety and accuracy. These commissions decided that NEDAP machines can not be used in the elections because they did not provide as securely as possible, the data could be easily transferred through the CD, in which the end-to-end testing could not be done. e.t.c.


After the controversy over voting methods during the presidential election in 2000, the method of voting was re-considered here. Here the Direct Recording Electronic System (DSE) was introduced, this machine used one of the push buttons, touchscreen and dial in one interfaces. Vote is recorded in the computer’s memory when it is voted by. DSE is used in 27 states of the USA.

How different are the Indian EVMs

Compared to e-voting machines in other countries of the world, machines in India are quite different:

Indian EVMs are not networked – Indian EVMs are built by two PSUs, not by private companies like other countries. For this reason, outsiders or technical vendors do not have any interference in the design and manufacturing of the EVM related to EVMs.

Indian EVMs are verified and certified several times by the independent Technical Expert Committee after the end-to-end testing process. These machines are standardized and certified under the Information and Technology Ministry.

Every EVM has a unique number, whose record is kept in EVM tracking software in the EC’s database. Sometimes this number can be examined.

The software used to make these EVMs is one-time programmable, i.e. no change can be made after EVM is created.

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